Erikson Vs Freud Essay On Hamlet

Freudian slips. The Oedipus complex. The ego. The id. The superego. Sigmund Freud’s writings changed how we perceive human behaviour. The founder of psychoanalysis pioneered insights into perhaps the original unreliable narrator – the self – and opened the pathway toward increasingly complex literary characters with motives beyond the obvious.

“Every dream will reveal itself as a psychological structure, full of significance, and one which may be assigned to a specific place in the psychic activities of the waking state,” Freud wrote in his landmark book, The Interpretation of Dreams, published in 1899. From the beginning, his work was intertwined with the canonical literature of his time. He drew upon Sophocles, Goethe’s Faust and Shakespeare – especially Hamlet, King Lear and Macbeth – to explicate his understanding of unconscious motivations and the complex metaphors and displacements of dreams. He used the language of poets and novelists to outline irrational behaviour, pioneering concepts we have come to think of as commonplace. 

To begin to understand Freud’s enduring impact on literature today, it is illuminating to trace the parallels between his writings and the work of his literary contemporaries.

Peer pressure and praise

“When I read one of your beautiful works I keep finding, behind the fiction, the same propositions, interests and solutions that are familiar to me from my own thoughts,” Freud wrote to Arthur Schnitzler, whose sexually explicit work, including the 1897 play Reigen (best known as La Ronde) was banned in Austria for nearly a quarter century. Schnitzler was, like Freud, trained as a neurologist in Vienna. And he was familiar with The Interpretation of Dreams. Schnitzler’s fiction includes dreams, Freudian symbols (mountains, lakes) and stream-of-consciousness, modelled on the “free association” Freud describes in Studies on Hysteria (1895).

Freud also corresponded with Austrian novelist Stefan Zweig, who noted in his 1931 biographical essay about the psychoanalyst, “Twenty years ago, Freud’s ideas were still thought of as blasphemous and heretical. Today they circulate freely and find expression in ordinary linguistic usage.”

Freud’s psychoanalytic theories and emphasis on the unconscious have shaped decades of conflicted characters. His theory of the Oedipus complex underpins many a literary work, from the incestuous relationship between Paul Morel and his mother in DH Lawrence’s 1913 novel Sons and Lovers to the present.

Freud’s work with traumatised World War I soldiers led to Beyond the Pleasure Principle, which fed into the character of Septimus Smith in Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway (1925). The modernist poet HD sought out Freud in 1933 when she was suffering from writer’s block, triggered in part by her dread of another devastating world war. Her 1956 book, Tribute to Freud, is a memoir of her psychoanalytic treatment.

Critical analysis

Freud’s theories also have inspired literary critics for more than a century. 

In the 1940s, Lionel Trilling noted the “poetic quality” of Freud’s principles, which, he wrote, descended from “classic tragic realism… a view which does not narrow and simplify the human world for the artist, but, on the contrary, opens and complicates it”.

Postmodernism, Structuralism and Post-Structuralism – including the work of French theorists Claude Levi-Strauss, Roland Barthes, Jacques Lacan, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze and Julia Kristeva – all have roots in Freud’s thinking.

Susan Sontag argued against Freud and for an “erotics of art” in her 1964 essay Against Interpretation. Harold Bloom applied Freud’s Oedipus complex to rivalries among poets and their precursors in his The Anxiety of Influence (1973), an approach given a feminist slant by Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar in Forward into the Past: The Complex Female Affiliation Complex (1985). Peter Brooks mined Freud’s dream-work for ideas of how novels are plotted in Reading for the Plot (1992).

Freud’s influence continues in the 21st Century. But today he is as likely to turn up as a character as a theoretical catalyst. Recently we’ve seen postmodern feminist novels such as the European Union Award-winning Freud’s Sister  by Goce Smilevski, translated from the Macedonian by Christina E Kramer (2012). This novel fictionalises the melancholy tale of Freud’s youngest sister Adolfina, who perished in the Theresienstadt concentration camp (four of Freud’s five younger sisters died in the Nazi death camps). Karen Mack and Jennifer Kaufman’s historical romance Freud’s Mistress (2013) spins a tale out of Freud’s alleged affair with Minna, his wife Martha’s younger sister. The producers of Downton Abbey have a TV series in the works called Freud: The Secret Casebook, set in fin de siècle Vienna, positing Freud as the first “profiler”, and delving into his own “tangled and provocative personal life”, Variety reported April 16.

Mental detective

Freud’s case studies, crafted as stories or novellas, have yielded endless bounty for fiction writers. The studies are rich texts to be questioned, critiqued, studied, imitated, modified and fictionalised.

One of Freud’s best known case studies, described in his 1905 Dora: An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria, involves a young woman with limb pains and a hysterical loss of voice, whose symptoms Freud sees as displacements of sexual feelings rooted in childhood memories. Lidia Yuknavitch’s edgy 2012 novel Dora: A Headcase, places Dora – whose real name was Ida Bauer – in contemporary Seattle with an analyst she calls Siggy. “I first read Freud’s famous case study on hysteria based on his client Ida Bauer when I was in my 20s,” Yuknavitch told The Rumpus. “It pissed me off so badly it haunted me for 25 years. But I had to wait to be a good enough writer to give Ida her voice back.”

The Dora case is also the basis of Sheila Kohler’s new novel Dreaming for Freud. A beautiful 17-year-old patient is taken to Freud by her father. “He wants her to be more reasonable,” says Kohler. “He wants her to have an affair with his mistress’s husband, but not to speak of it. She protests and she says the man has been after her since she was thirteen.” The girl finds Interpretation of Dreams in her father’s library and decides to invent dreams to bring to Freud, feeding him fabrications in their sessions that appear in his later case study.

“Freud’s case studies are all written as mysteries, like Conan Doyle,” says Kohler, who has been teaching a class called Reading Freud's Great Case Histories as Short Stories at Princeton University this spring. “Each case study is a mystery. Each one he solves. Is he right? It doesn’t really matter.”

This mystery may, in the end, be the point.

From his first publications, Freud’s ideas were revolutionary and controversial.  His followers – Carl Jung, Otto Rank, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Anna Freud, Melanie Klein and Erik Erikson among them – diverged from his original blueprint, extending and modifying psychoanalytic thought and practice to this day.

Freud the author, awarded the 1930 Goethe prize for literature for his “clear and impeccable style”, catalyst for innumerable other writers, may be as important as Freud the scientist. The highest measure of his meaning may derive from the echoes of his voice in artistic work. 

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Sigmund Freud - Essays on Freud 
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SigmundFreud/ "Civilization and Its Discontents"
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A 5 page analysis of SigmundFreud Civilization and Its Discontents. The writer discusses how Freud viewed the sources behind the formulation of civilization and how this has affected the human psyche. No other sources cited.
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Friedrich Nietzsche And SigmundFreud On The Enlightenment
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5 pages in length. The Enlightenment was one of the central tasks that the major thinkers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries established themselves. What this means in terms of the manner in which those great philosophers looked at the broader scope of existence lies within the works of such celebrated thinkers as SigmundFreud and Friedrich Nietzsche. The writer discusses Nietzsche and Freud in relation to the Enlightenment. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
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SigmundFreud: Repression Hypothesis
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7 pages in length. A majority of the themes and issues found in contemporary psychology treatments have their fundamental basis in SigmundFreud's discoveries. The renowned psychoanalyst, who did not hold the most favorable reputation during his time, was a rich source of insights about sociological issues. His collection of work contained a number of themes that are still relevant in addressing many of today's psychological ills, including the concept of ego as an entity that cannot maintain control over itself; that individual and social psychology are one and the same; that organizations are the result of repressed desires and ambivalent memories of ancient events and that the ego and superego are responsible for housing cultural ideals. Freud's repression hypothesis has been shared by other philosophers who postulate that humanity is little more than a self-centered entity with minimal concern for anything but itself. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
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The Use of SigmundFreud's Dora to Understand Fontane's Effi Briest
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This 5 page paper provides a comparative view of SigmundFreud's Dora and Fontane's Effi Briest. This paper determines the application of Freud's Dora in providing an understanding of Fontane's Effi Briest. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
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SigmundFreud and the Aesthetics of Art
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A 5 page discussion of Freud's views on art. Notes his extensive personal collection of art from primitive cultures, art which in many cases was originally ceremonial in nature. Points out the discrepancy with Freud's fascination with this art and his disbelief in religion. Discusses the Freudian concept of revenants (repetition) and rhythm and points out the significance of each in art. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
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Sigmund Freud
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A 5 page general discussion of SigmundFreud. His life and works are discussed. A brief discussion, in the end, of the validity of his work is also included. Freud was the founder of many theories and notions which related to the human mind, and as such was a very renowned individual who provided his particular field of study with invaluable information through the years. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
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Freud's Civilization And Its Discontents
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When one embarks into the literary realm inhabited by SigmundFreud it is important to remember that he viewed the world from an inner perspective. Civilization And Its Discontents is no exception. The question, for Freud, is whether the inner mechanisms of the individual can be tamed, or civilized , in a manner that would allow the constructive connection of man and his environment through a productive bonding process? This 5 page paper seeks to explore the concepts presented by Freud in this book. No additional sources are listed.
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Freud�s Personality Theory & Hamlet
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A 5 page paper which examines SigmundFreud�s personality theory, which laid the foundation for modern-day psychoanalysis in terms of one of literature�s most famous characters, Hamlet. Specifically considered are Freud�s interpretation of Hamlet, the effects of family and wider environment, an evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of Freud�s theory and a consideration of important areas his theory overlooks. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
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The �Poetry� of Freud and Nietzsche
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This 6 page report discusses SigmundFreud and Friedrich Nietzsche and refers to how each used vast amounts of poetic imagery, analogies, and metaphor in their writing. Each captured the essence of what they had to say in a poetic framework that carried a certain amount of lyricism although both are likely to have denied such a thing. Nietzsche�s �Birth of Tragedy� (1872) was (and is) an example of classical intellectualism while Freud�s �Civilizations and its Discontents� (1930) presented the world with the idea that humanity and the collective thinking of human beings is of far greater impact than the behavior of human beings as separate individuals. Both works serve to illustrate that Freud and Nietzsche were examples of para-rational poets. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
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Freud's Dream Interpretations as a Contribution to Psychology
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This 5 page paper looks at Freudian psychology and dream interpretation both together and independently. The history of dream interpretation is discussed as well as Freud's contributions to psychology. The paper concludes that SigmundFreud's contribution in terms of dream psychology is significant. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
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Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents
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A 5 page paper discussing the interplay of Death Instinct and Eros in this Freud work. Without question, SigmundFreud made astounding contributions to the science of discovering the ways in which the human mind works, but one must wonder how dysfunctional the Father of Psychoanalysis truly was. Anyone who could say with conviction that 'Living is an eternal nuisance...to endure life remains the first duty of all living things' obviously has little or no happiness in his life, and that lack of happiness both in his personal life and in the lives of his patients Freud attributed to the progress of civilization. Bibliography lists 1 source.
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The Connection Between Salvador Dali�s Surrealism & SigmundFreud�s Unconscious Mind
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A 6 page paper which explores the relationship between Salvador Dali's surrealistic painting style and SigmundFreud's studies of the unconscious mind. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
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SigmundFreud and Contemporary Gender Issues
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7 pages in length. This paper discusses the correlation between the theories of SigmundFreud and the bias towards women in the workplace today. Bibliography lists 10 sources.
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SigmundFreud and the Romantics /A Comparative View
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This 7 page paper compares and contrasts the views of SigmundFreud, as presented in his Civilization and its Discontent, with the common views of the Romantics, including Wordsworth, Whitman and Blake, as respresented in their poetry. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
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SigmundFreud & Psychology # 2
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7 pages in length. Similar to 'Freud.wps,' this paper also includes a brief biography in its first 1-2 pages which is then complemented by analysis of Freudian concepts. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
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SigmundFreud & Psychology
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5 page discussion of popular Freudian ideas. Writer uses personal experiences to assess them (examples of how such things as Freud's "id," "fixations," and "personality-based reactions" etc; have persisted throughout the author's life). Bibliography lists 3 sources.
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Freud and Marcuse
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A five page paper which looks at the theories propounded in SigmundFreud�s Civilisation and its Discontents and the way in which Marcuse criticised and elaborated on Freud�s arguments in Eros and Civilisation. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
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A Freudian Approach to Understanding Plath's The Bell Jar
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A 5 page analysis of SigmundFreud's Civilization and its Discontents and Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar. The writer argues that a possible explanation for the depression of Plath's protagonist, Esther, may be found in Freud's work. No additional sources cited.
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Freud's Psychology As Applied To The Movie "What Dreams May Come"
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5 pages in length. A majority of the themes and issues found in contemporary psychology treatments have their fundamental basis in SigmundFreud's discoveries. The writer discusses how Freud's theories apply to the movie What Dreams May Come. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
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SigmundFreud's Psychoanalysis
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A 4 page paper that discusses the major schools of psychological thought and supports Freud's pschoanalysis as the most influential and effective. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
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SigmundFreud / 'Sexuality & The Psychology of Love'
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A 15 page paper that provides an overview of Freud's theories about psychosexual development based on the work Sexuality and the Psychology of Love. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
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SigmundFreud's Principles Of Personality Theory
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A 12 page research paper that investigates Freud's perception of the human personality. Among the topics discussed are: the unconscious and the conscious, defense mechanisms, the Id, Ego and Superego and their relationship to the unconscious and the conscious, the origins of repression and the libido. Bibliography lists 9 sources.
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Lecture On Sigmund Freud
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This 7 page essay presents a tutorial on giving a lecture centered on SigmundFreud to a group of older Jewish women.
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Hamlet and Oedipus
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The first interpretation of Hamlet as a young man in the grip of an Oedipus complex as outlined by SigmundFreud was probably Ernest Jones' 1910 article Hamlet and Oedipus. Since then, a number of film and theatrical presentations have included this concept in their own interpretation of the great Shakespearean play, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The psychological pressure that Hamlet is expected to confront and integrate is interfered with at a critical point in his development. Rather than making the adjustment to the adult stage where the sexual connotations of his parent's relationship can be synthesized so that his own feelings of jealousy and rage are expunged and the Father figure develops beyond idealization, his father dies. He is then placed in a situation where the definitions of his own unconscious incest is in conflict with the apparent incest between his mother and a new father figure. He is subsequently, and tragically, stuck in the Oedipal stage and is unable to negotiate the intellectual processing necessary to come to a healthy conclusion. This 7 page paper explores the myth of Oedipus, the interpretation of the myth by Freud and the appropriateness of the theory that Hamlet was suffering from a classic Freudian Oedipal complex. Bibliography lists 7 sources.
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How Successful Are The Modern Attacks on Religion Presented by Marx, Nietzsche and Freud?
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Modern attacks on religion, as presented by Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche and SigmundFreud, are grounded in the belief that the rational, or scientific, method of explanation is superior to, and may totally negate, the irrational, or a priori foundation of religious beliefs. The use of language and the manipulation of the concepts by which scientific proof is accorded negates the argument of that religion is of little or no value because it does not satisfy scientific inquiry. This 10 page paper examines the views of these three men and presents the argument that the views they held on religion are not applicable or pertinent in Today's society. Bibliography lists 10 sources.
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Conrad & Freud/Views on Civilization
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A 5 page analysis of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness and SigmundFreud's Civilization and its Discontents that argues that both of these authors held similar views relative to civilization and its role. No additional sources cited.
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Nietzsche vs Freud
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A 5 page paper which examines the different views of Friedrich Nietzsche and SigmundFreud on how rational and irrational instincts affect human lives and considers whether irrationality is the ingredient for a normal life. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
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Freud and Disease
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A 7 page discussion of SigmundFreud's views on mental illness. Encapsulates his belief that the outward manifestation of all mental illness revolves around our inner savagery or repressed sexuality. Contrasts this belief with the modern belief that mental illness is a biochemical malfunction and addresses the question as to whether disease has a function. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
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Freud and the Nature of Dreams
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A 20 page comprehensive and detailed explication of SigmundFreud's theories and work relating to the nature of dreams.
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Freud's Place in Psychology
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This 3 page paper provides an overview of SigmundFreud's ideas and if he were alive today, where he would be in the discipline. Many other schools of thought are compared to this great theorist's work. Bibliography lists 1 source.
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The Common Theme of DuBois and Freud
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This five-page paper discusses the common theme in W.E.B. DuBois�s book �The Soul of Black Folks,� and SigmundFreud�s work ,�Civilization and its Discontent.� Bibliography lists two sources.
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Nietzsche and Freud on the 'Conscience'
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A 3 page paper which compares and contrasts the term, �conscience,� as described by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche and Austrian psychologist SigmundFreud. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
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Lorca�s Lament for Ignacio Sanchez Mejias, Moliere�s Tartuffe, and Freud�s Dora: An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria / A Comparison
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In 7 pages, the author compares Federico Garcia Lorca�s Lament for Ignacio Sanchez Mejias, Jean Babtise Moliere�s Tartuffe, and SigmundFreud�s Dora: An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria.
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SigmundFreud�s �Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis�
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This 5 page report discusses Freud�s �Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis� presented at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, in September of 1909 and the 1910 publication of those lectures. In the lectures, Freud discussed his various discoveries regarding psychoanalysis. This report pays special attention to the fifth lecture and discusses whether or not his statement -- �A certain portion of the repressed libidinal impulses has a claim to direct satisfaction and ought to find it in life. Our civilized standards make life too difficult for the majority of human organizations� -- is valid. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
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SigmundFreud and Nancy Chodorow -- Perspectives on the Individual
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This 7 page report discusses SigmundFreud�s larger psychoanalysis theories and those of the moodier day feminist-sociologist Nancy Chodorow. While Freud �blames� virtually every aspect of human development, both individually and collectively, on sexual repression, Chodorow believes it is important to reexamine the multiple aspects of sexuality (gender, sexual orientation, and love) and presents her ideas from those basic points of reference. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
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SigmundFreud & George Kelly
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(5pp) Major theories of personality developed by both of these historic psychologists are examined. A case study is used to propose how each clinician would have looked at the patient/client. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
Filename: BBfreud.doc.

Eros And Civilization
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Civilization, as well as the individual, is capable of personal evolution, including the ability to redefine the future based on the knowledge gained from experience. This 3 page paper asserts that Herbert Marcuse, in Eros and Civilization confronts the arguments presented by SigmundFreud in Civilization And Its Discontents, finding that Freud's interpretation of the repressive nature of civilization was pertinent only to the time and place as well as cultural understandings of history. No additional sources are listed.
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Problems of Religion
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A 9 page paper discussing the views of Karl Marx, Frederick Nietzsche and SigmundFreud regarding the role of religion in the lives of individuals and assessing the success of each in dismissing its perceived worth. Marx forbade it; Nietzsche ridiculed it as outside the realm of reality for the true thinker; Freud accused it of burdening the human race with the guilt with which we all, according to him, struggle. While each of these philosophers believed themselves to be quite successful in making religion disappear for their own purposes, neither could continually keep it at bay. Bibliography lists 11 sources.
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SigmundFreud's "The Ego And The Id"
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5 pages in length. The writer addresses the following issues as they relate to Freud's The Ego and the Id: In what way are we our ego? What is the ego and how does Freud defend his description and location of it? How does the ego develop and what tasks does it have to perform? What difficulties face the ego? How does the situation of the ego reflect the situation of humankind? No additional sources cited.
Filename: TLCegoid.wps

Hard Times For Freud
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This 5 page paper looks at the theories and principles presented by SigmundFreud in Civilization And It's Discontents and compares them with the behavior of Louisa Bounderby and James Harthouse in Charles Dickens' Hard Times. No additional sources are listed.
Filename: KTfrddck.wps

Gun Control, Freud And Hobbes
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The debate over the right to bear arms and the need in American society to control guns and violence has reached an apogee since the incident at Littleton, Colorado, High School. This 5 page paper argues that SigmundFreud would say that the death instinct has become out of balance with the life instinct. Thomas Hobbes would maintain that the government has a right to control the actions of its citizens. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
Filename: KTsocpsy.wps

SigmundFreud and His Philosophy on Public Education
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This 5 page report discusses SigmundFreud�s influence throughout the past century and how it has served to shape a great deal of the attitudes and beliefs of Western society regarding public education. Freud clearly understood that work and a person�s contribution to society and its economy were crucial developmental factors for human beings. As a result, educational systems had to be developed to reflect that process of development. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Filename: BWfruded.wps

Personality
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A 10 page paper discussing SigmundFreud's and B.F. Skinner's theories of personality. The issue is addressed as to how much biology, or heredity, plays a part in the development of personalities. The theorists defined are of the opinion that all, or nearly all, of the individual's personality is formed and created by outside influences. They believe that the environment is the shaper of personality, not genetics or biology. A discussion of each individual theorist is included, followed by a section analyzing the two theorists and their beliefs in regards to personality and environment. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Filename: Person8.wps

Civilization and its Discontent
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This five page paper presents a discussion on the meaning and direct purpose of SigmundFreud's , "Civilization And Its Discontent. Bibliography lists one source.
Filename: CWcivil.wps

Personality
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A 10 page paper discussing SigmundFreud's and B.F. Skinner's theories of personality. The question is raised as to whether or not biology, or heredity, plays a part in the development of personalities. The theorists defined are of the opinion that all, or nearly all, of the individual's personality is formed and created by outside influences. They believe that the environment is the shaper of personality, not genetics or biology. A discussion of each individual theorist is included, followed by a section analyzing the two theorists and their beliefs in regards to personality and environment. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Filename: Personfr.wps

The Abused Child
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A 5 page paper which discusses the various emotional aspects of child abuse and presents a proposal wherein child abuse victims, who were victimized beginning in early childhood, could be put into cognitive therapy to enable them to have positive self esteem. The theories of Erik Erikson and SigmundFreud are discussed as well. Bibliography lists 10 sources.
Filename: RAabused.wps

Humor in Society
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This 5 page paper looks at the concept of humor and assesses it from a variety of sociological and psychological perspectives. Several authors are noted including SigmundFreud. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
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Racism: The Impact Upon Psychiatry Of African-Americans
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5 pages in length. Historically, the treatment of mental illness has generated significant discussion regarding the reasons for various illnesses and the outcome of treating them. The early fathers of psychiatry espoused different theories about mental illness and were criticized by some in the field, while others embraced their ideas. The early leaders in mental illness treatment continue to have a major impact upon the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of those who are considered in need of such treatment. These leaders, including SigmundFreud, had ideas about minorities that were not favorable and were, indeed, racist, the impact of which is still being felt in the contemporary fields of psychiatry and psychology. The misdiagnosis of African-Americans has had a profoundly negative impact upon every aspect of their lives, not the least of which includes social status, economics, religion and educational opportunities. A re-examination of how minorities are diagnosed is critical to providing appropriate levels of care. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
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The Connection Between Horror Film Genre & Adolescence
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A 5 page paper which examines why the horror film genre remains so popular with adolescents by first defining Aristotle�s definition of genre, then emphasizing SigmundFreud�s psychological theories regarding the transition from childhood to adulthood. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
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Freud's Basic Theories
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A 7 page research paper that presents the basic concepts of SigmundFreud's psychoanalytical theory. The writer discusses the differences between the id, ego and superego, as well as outlining the basic stages of personality development. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
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Freud and Fun
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(5 pp) According to Boynton (2000) SigmundFreud's theory of psychoanalysis has been challenged and revised from the moment it was conceived. What, we might now read as outrageous fiction, has become the fodder of light-night talk shows which perhaps is damning enough. This discussion will focus on some of Freud's creative ideas concerning the human psyche, and see where they stand today. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
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Comparing SigmundFreud and Alfred Adler
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This 8 page report discusses two of the most noted pioneers in the fields of psychoanalytic psychology. SigmundFreud�s influence throughout the past century has served to shape a great deal of the attitudes and beliefs of Western society. But it is important to understand that Freud was not alone in his contribution to the realm of psychology and understanding the development of the human personality and spirit, as well as how people interact with one another. Alfred Adler (1870�1937) also proposed theories and ideas that have been incorporated in the mainstream of present-day theory and practice of psychology and psychopathology. This paper compares their points of view regarding a number of issues. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
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Raymond Carver's "Call Me If You Need Me": Why People Act The Way They Do
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6 pages in length. Because socialization sets the groundwork for appropriate social behavior, its existence is critical for a person's overall development. Without such, people would not be able to function in or participate with the rest of society. By passing down these socializing attributes from generation to generation, it ensures the continuation of a civilized society, which is obtained on a daily basis through family, school and peer groups. Raymond Carver's "Call Me If You Need Me" addresses these cultural characteristics as they relate to human behavior; by associating works of SigmundFreud, one can readily surmise the relationship that exists between Carver's story and basic human interaction. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
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�Freud�s The Interpretation of Dreams�
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A paper which looks at SigmundFreud�s The Interpretation of Dreams, with reference to his theories regarding wish-fulfilment, repression, the mechanisms of internal censorship, the symbology of dreams, and the relationship between the development of the individual from id to super-ego and the way that this development is reflected in the elements of dreams.
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Case Study on Death and Dying
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This 5 page paper relays a case study presented by a student regarding a patient and his family. The case is analyzed in light of several theories of death and dying. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross's paradigm is critically evaluated. SigmundFreud's attention to grief work is discussed. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
Filename: SA120grf .doc

Salvador Dali: The Struggle Between Religion and Science
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A 5 page discussion of the influence of God and religion on the surrealistic art of Salvador Dali. Contends that Dali struggled to integrate his spiritual beliefs with his ever-growing interests in sciences. Contrasts his efforts with those of SigmundFreud and artist like Fyodor Dostoevsky who seemed intent of proving that God did not exist. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
Filename: PPdali.wps

Carl Gustav Jung -- A Life Shaped by Women
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Carl Gustav Jung -- A Life Shaped by Women: This 37-page essay details the life experiences of psychoanalyst, Carl Jung and the four women who left lasting impressions on this brilliant, often-tortured man and his work. Beginning with his mother, Emilie and recounting his marriage, one acknowledged mistress and one pivotal affair, Jung is shown to have had significant female influences that helped shape his critically acclaimed precepts. Yet, irrespective of his numerous infidelities, to many his ideology offers the promise of wholeness and meaning in a cosmic universe where -- perhaps -- only the mere prospect of salvation exists. Additionally, his relationship to mentor, SigmundFreud is explored. Bibliography lists 15 sources. SNFemjun.doc
Filename: SNFemjun.doc

Personality Development and Freud;
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This 5 page paper considers how SigmundFreud's development of psychoanalysis explains the development of personality by way of motivation drives and wishes. The ideas of the id, the ego and the super ego are discussed with the function of the primary and secondary processes as well as the pleasure principle. The bibliography cites 7 sources.
Filename: TEfreudd.wps

Freud / Infantilism, Homosexuality, & Bisexuality
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This 10 page essay discusses specific thoughts of Freud, such as how one comes to be stuck in an infantile mind set, and the essays/books in which they appeared. Two of the works mentioned are Civilization and its Discontents and Freud's account of Dora. The essay also mentions Freud's thoughts on happiness, homosexuality and bisexuality, on which he had lifelong strong convictions. Despite his detractors, Freud opened the world's eyes to aspects of human development theretofore unknown. Bibliography lists 7 sources.
Filename: Infreud.wps

Freud and the Media
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This 10 page paper considers the theories of Freud and their interaction with the media. This includes Freud's influence on the evolving film industry along with his disapproval of it and the arts and the possibility of the media influencing Freud's theories. The bibliography cites 7 sources.
Filename: TEfreudc.wps

Freud And The Case Of Dora
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This 5 page paper discusses Freud's famous case of Dora, a young woman he diagnosed as hysteric. The writer describes the case, Dora's background, and the reasons for Freud's diagnosis. There is also a discussion of the recent criticism of Freud's handling of the case with direct comments about the patriarchal nature of the society of the day and the effect these had on the diagnosis and treatment of this young woman. These may be the most important psychoanalytic implications to be derived. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Filename: PGdora.wps

Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents
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A 5 page paper discussing Freud's views of pleasure, reality, life force, death force, aggression and guilt as they relate to the structure and continuity of civilization. Anyone harboring only marginal good will toward humanity and civilization could well lose it through reading this work. According to Freud, there is little good in the world that arises naturally and without coercion of one form or another, of one person to another. Man's existence is rooted in aggression, and all individual concepts he had originated through his study of the mind Freud found he could apply to social theory, though with little positive about the existence and future of the human race. Bibliography lists 1 source.
Filename: Freudci2.wps

Nietzsche vs. Freud On The Nature Of Good And Evil
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A 3 page analysis of the preface to Neitzsche's The Genealogy of Morals and whether or not Freud would agree with his conclusions based on Freud's writing in Civilization and Its Discontents. The writer argues that Freud would agree as he makes similar points in his own book and that both works address the mutability inherent in perspectives on morality. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
Filename: Freudnie.wps

Freud as a Novelist
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A 12 page paper which discusses the concept of Freud's work reading like a novel. The works of Freud

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